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The senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon.
This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon.
In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line.
Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV.
The term House of Bourbon ("Maison de Bourbon") is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury.
In 1272, Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527.
By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma.
Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.
Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.
Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, and similar arrangements later kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma.
The Spanish House of Bourbon (rendered in Spanish as Borbón ) has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, and since 1975.
The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon.
The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings.